UW Physics



Physics 545 Introduction to atomic structure
fall semester 2019
T,Th 8:009:15 in 2223 Chamberlin,
Office hours: TBD, or by appointment, or just stop by.
Final Exam Wednesday Dec. 18 7:45  9:45 am in 2223 Chamberlin
Mark Saffman
Department of Physics office: 5330 Chamberlin
tlf: 265 5601
email: msaffman@wisc.edu
web: hexagon.physics.wisc.edu



Course catalog description: Nuclear atom; hydrogen atom; BohrSommerfeld model, wave model, electron spin, description of quantum electron spin, description of quantum electrodynamic effects; external fields; manyelectron atoms; central field, Pauli principle, multiplets, periodic table, xray spectra, vector coupling, systematics of ground states; nuclear effects in atomic spectra. Prerequisites: A course in quantum mechanics or cons inst.Course listing in UW timetable.
The recommended (not required) supplementary textbook is G. K. Woodgate, Elementary atomic structure, Oxford
Several alternative texts are available on course reserves in the astronomy library.
books on atomic physics(notes and other materials are only available on the UW computer network)
Syllabus (subject to change) (updated 2019.12.10)
week 
lecture 

date 
topic 
reading in atomic notes 
recommended reading in Woodgate 
HW out 
HW due 
1 
1 
Th 
Sept 5 
Introduction, Bohr model, atomic units, start Schr. equation for H atom 
ch.1 



2 
2 
T 
Sept 10 
Schr. Eq., H atom, degeneracy, orbitals, <r^k>, momentum space wavefunction 

ch. 1,2 
1 


3 
Th 
Sept 12 
periodic table, quantum defects, Coulomb wavefunctions, matrix elements 




3 
4 
Th 
Sept 19 
fine structure in Hydrogen 
ch. 2 
ch. 4 

1 
4 
5 
T 
Sept 24 
fine structure in alkalis, start angular momentum theory: addition of angular momenta, CG coefficients 
appendix A 
ch. 9 
2 


6 
W 
Sept 25 
continue angular momentum: tensor operators,Lande projection, WignerEckart theorem, reduced matrix elements in coupled basis 





7 
Th 
Sept 26 
hyperfine structure, Lamb shift, muonic Lamb shift and size of proton 




5 
8 
T 
Oct 1 
Multielectron atoms, Configurations and terms. Determinantal products, matching terms and determinantal products 
ch. 3 
ch. 5,6,7 
3 


9 
Th 
Oct 3 
term splitting, Slater integrals. Central field approximation. 



2 
6 
10 
Th 
Oct 10 
fine structure in LS coupling, Hunds rules. He energy levels, singlet, triplet structure, ground and excited states, direct and exchange integrals. 





11 
T 
Oct 15 
Yb matrix element calculation, Atomlight Hamiltonian, Zeeman effect in fine structure. 

ch. 8 


7 
12 
W 
Oct 16 
Zeeman effect in hyperfine structure, high field Zeeman crossing, diamagnetic response, magic B field 


4 
3 

13 
Th 
Oct 17 
Stark effect, H_E1, scalar, tensor polarizability 
ch.4 



8 
14 
T 
Oct 22 
linear Stark effect, BBR shift 





15 
W 
Oct23 
Einstein A,B rate equations, absorption area law, Lorentzian lineshape, saturation effects, cross section and scattering rates 


5 
4 

16 
T 
Oct 29 
E1 Hamiltonian for oscillating field. co and counterrotating terms. TDPT, Fermi golden rule, semiclassical B coefficient 




9 
17 
W 
Oct 30 
midterm guidance 



5 


Th 
Oct 31 
midterm in class 
ch. 5 
ch.3 
6 

10 
18 
Th 
Nov 7 
quantize EM field, quantum A coefficient (WignerWeisskopf theory). atomic lifetimes, magnetic dipole transitions, 




11 
19 
T 
Nov 12 
lifetime scaling with n, circular state lifetime. Line broadening mechanisms: radiative, Doppler, pressure, collisional, absorption spectroscopy 
ch. 6 



12 
20 
T 
Nov 19 
Dynamic polarizability, oscillator strength, Rabi oscillations 
ch. 7,9 

7 
6 

21 
Th 
Nov 21 
density matrix theory, twolevel Bloch equations, twophoton transitions, adiabatic transfer with dark states. 
ch.10 



13 
22 
T 
Nov 26 
optical pumping, optical forces 
ch.12 





Th 
Nov 28 
Thanksgiving 



7 
14 
23 
T 
Dec 3 
laser cooling, radiation and gradient forces 


8 


24 
W 
Dec 4 
magnetooptical trapping slides 
ch. 13, 14 



15 
25 
T 
Dec 10 
sisyphus and Raman cooling, Ramsey spectroscopy, T2 due to a Gaussian process 





26 
W 
Dec 11 
atomic clocks, atomic interactions and entanglement slides 



8 


W 
Dec 18 
Final or class project presentations 













Grading: HW 50%, midterm 17%, final 33%
Homework
Homework is an important part of the course and accounts for 50% of your grade. Working problems is an integral part of learning physics, and will also give you practice in applying mathematical methods. You are encouraged to use the math resources provided in the notes and links below.
Homework will typically be given out on a tuesday and due the following tuesday. You are welcome to work together on homework, however you must turn in your own solutions  not a Xerox copy of someone else's. Late homework will not be accepted unless prior approval has been given. Assignments and solutions will be provided by email.
Atomic notes:
atomic notes (updated 2019.10.15)
9.30 some updates to Ch.3
10.15 fixed some typos in calculation of Yb matrix elements
Notes on various topics:
_______________________
Physical constants (updated 2015.09.03) if you want all the details here are the CODATA 2014 recommended values and NIST's 2018 updates.
Conversion between Gaussian and SI units (v1.2, 2009.01.20)
Quantum mechanics primer (updated 2016.09.27)
A little bit of quantum information
Time independent perturbation theory
Time dependent perturbation theory
Mathematical formulae (updated 2017.09.28)
Special relativity notes (version 1.2, updated 2008.02.17) A good introduction to special relativity that is much more detailed than my notes can be found here.
Tutorial on Fourier transforms Note that this tutorial uses a different convention than us. The prefactor in onedimension is 1/(2pi) for the inverse transform (k>x) and just 1 for the forward transform (x>k). We are using a symmetric form where the prefactor is 1/sqrt(2 pi) in each direction.
Some interesting papers related to the course:
Einstein:
Einstein photoelectric effect (1905)
Einstein special relativity (1905)
Einstein radiation theory (1917)
Einstein and quantum theory (review 1979)
H matrix elements:
Gordon matrix elements (1929)
H Fine structure, hyperfine structure, and Lamb shift:
Hydrogen data (2010)
Lamb original measurement (1947)
Series of six papers by Lamb, et al. giving more experimental and theoretical details (19501953)
I II III IV V VI
Welton's Lamb shift calculation (1948)
Newer calculations (1967)
Newer experiments (1979)
Cs microwave clock:
NIST F1 accuracy (2002)
Absorption in atomic vapors:
Rb D lines, Hughes, Adams (2008)
Rb saturated absorption spectroscopy, Freegarde (2010)
Purcell effect:
Purcell effect(1946)
Haroche observation of enhanced decay (1983)
Kleppner theory of inhibited decay (1981)
Kleppner observation of inhibited decay (1985)
Rabi:
Space quantization (1937)
Magnetic resonance note (1938)
Molecular beam magnetic resonance method (1939)
Laser cooling:
Adams laser cooling review (1997)
Letokhov laser cooling and trapping review (2000)
Metcalf laser cooling review (2003)
subDoppler cooling of Na (1988)
Atomic parity nonconservation:
Bouchiat derivation of relevant weak interaction (1974)
Bouchiat review of parity nonconservation (1997)
JILA experiment (1997)
JILA experiment  all the details (1999)
Links to useful information:
Periodic table
NIST Physical reference data
NIST Atomic Spectroscopy reference
Harvard CFA databases
Wikipedia  atomic physics
Physics World
Math World
Wolfram function site
Digital library of mathematical functions
Abramowitz & Stegun Handbook of Mathematical Functions
Integrals on the web
ClebschGordan calculator (requires Java)
6j symbol calculator
Matrix solver for linear equations on the web
