UW Physics



Physics 545 Introduction to atomic structure
fall semester 2018
T,Th 8:009:15 in 2120 Chamberlin,
Office hours: M 1:302:30, W 9:0010:00, or by appointment, or just stop by.
Final Exam Thursday Dec. 20 7:45  9:45 am
Mark Saffman
Department of Physics office: 5330 Chamberlin
tlf: 265 5601
email: msaffman@wisc.edu
web: hexagon.physics.wisc.edu



Course catalog description: Nuclear atom; hydrogen atom; BohrSommerfeld model, wave model, electron spin, description of quantum electron spin, description of quantum electrodynamic effects; external fields; manyelectron atoms; central field, Pauli principle, multiplets, periodic table, xray spectra, vector coupling, systematics of ground states; nuclear effects in atomic spectra. Prerequisites: A course in quantum mechanics or cons inst.Course listing in UW timetable.
The recommended (not required) supplementary textbook is G. K. Woodgate, Elementary atomic structure, Oxford
Several alternative texts are available on course reserves.
books on atomic physics(notes and other materials are only available on the UW computer network)
Syllabus (subject to change) (updated 2018.11.13)
week 
lecture 

date 
topic 
reading in atomic notes 
recommended reading in Woodgate 
HW out 
HW due 
1 
1 
Th 
Sept 6 
Introduction, Bohr model, atomic units 
ch.1 



2 
2 
T 
Sept 11 
Schr. Eq., H atom, degeneracy, orbitals, <r^k>, momentum space wavefunction 

ch. 1,2 
1 


3 
Th 
Sept 13 
periodic table, quantum defects, Coulomb wavefunctions, matrix elements 




3 
4 
T 
Sept 18 
fine structure in Hydrogen 
ch. 2 
ch. 4 
2 
1 

5 
Th 
Sept 20 
fine structure in alkalis, alkali doublet anomaly, start angular momentum theory: addition of angular momenta, CG coefficients 
appendix A 
ch. 9 


4 
6 
T 
Sept 25 
continue angular momentum: tensor operators,Lande projection 





7 
Th 
Sept 27 
WignerEckart theorem 




5 
8 
T 
Oct 2 
Lande projection theorem, reduced matrix elements in coupled basis, strength of H 1s2p transitions. start hyperfine structure 
ch. 3 
ch. 5,6,7 

2 

9 
Th 
Oct 4 
hyperfine structure, Lamb shift, muonic Lamb shift and size of proton. Start multielectron atoms. 


3 

6 
10 
T 
Oct 9 
Multielectron atoms, Configurations and terms. Determinantal products, matching terms and determinantal products 





11 
Th 
Oct 11 
term splitting, Slater integrals. Central field approximation. He energy levels, singlet, triplet structure He ground and excited state perturbation theory, direct and exchange integrals, 

ch. 8 


7 
12 
T 
Oct 16 
fine structure in LS coupling, Hunds rules. Zeeman effect 





13 
Th 
Oct 18 
Zeeman effect in fine and hyperfine structure, high field Zeeman crossing, diamagnetic response 
ch.4 

4 
3 
8 
14 
T 
Oct 23 
magic B field, Stark effect, HE1, derive scalar, tensor static polarizability 





15 
Th 
Oct 25 
review, linear Stark effect, BBR shift 



4 
9 

T 
Oct 30 
midterm in class 





16 
Th 
Nov 1 
midterm solutions, Einstein A,B rate equations 
ch. 5 
ch.3 


10 
17 
T 
Nov 6 
absorption area law, Lorentzian lineshape, saturation effects, cross section and scattering rates. E1 Hamiltonian for oscillating field. co and counterrotating terms 


5 


18 
Th 
Nov 8 
TDPT, Fermi golden rule, semiclassical B coefficient, quantize EM field, quantum A coefficient (WignerWeisskopf theory) 




11 
19 
T 
Nov 13 
atomic lifetimes: magnetic dipole transitions, scaling with n, circular state lifetime. Introduction to using atoms as qubits. 
ch. 6 




20 
Th 
Nov 15 
line broadening mechanisms: radiative, Doppler, pressure, collisional, absorption spectroscopy 
ch. 7 



12 
21 
T 
Nov 20 
Continuum states and photoionization  simple model, 
ch. 8 

6 
5 


Th 
Nov 22 
Thanksgiving 




13 
22 
T 
Nov 27 
Photoionization in high energy limit. Dynamic polarizability. Oscillator strengths. 
ch.9 




23 
Th 
Nov 29 
density matrix theory, twolevel Bloch equations 
ch.10 

7 
6 
14 
24 
T 
Dec 4 
twophoton transitions, dark states, optical pumping, optical forces 
ch. 11,12 




25 
Th 
Dec 6 
laser cooling, magnetooptical trap, sisyphus and Raman cooling (briefly) 
ch. 13, 14 



15 
26 
T 
Dec 11 
optical traps, atomic coherence, atomic clocks, entangled atoms 



7 


Th 
Dec 20 
Presentation of class projects 7:459:45 am 




Grading: HW 50%, midterm 17%, final project 33%
Homework
Homework is an important part of the course and accounts for 50% of your grade. Working problems is an integral part of learning physics, and will also give you practice in applying mathematical methods. You are encouraged to use the math resources provided in the notes and links below.
Homework will typically be given out on a tuesday and due the following tuesday. You are welcome to work together on homework, however you must turn in your own solutions  not a Xerox copy of someone else's. Late homework will not be accepted unless prior approval has been given. Assignments and solutions will be provided by email.
Atomic notes:
atomic notes (updated 2018.10.25)
9.19 corrected minor typos, added material on fine structure and proton radius in ch. 2
10.09 reorganized ch.3 and added new material
10.15 ch.4  corrected lower/upper case labeling
10.25 corrected some minor typos
Notes on various topics:
_______________________
Physical constants (updated 2015.09.03) if you want all the details here are the CODATA 2010 recommended values and NIST's 2014 updates.
Conversion between Gaussian and SI units (v1.2, 2009.01.20)
Quantum mechanics primer (updated 2016.09.27)
A little bit of quantum information
Time independent perturbation theory
Time dependent perturbation theory
Mathematical formulae (updated 2017.09.28)
Special relativity notes (version 1.2, updated 2008.02.17) A good introduction to special relativity that is much more detailed than my notes can be found here.
Tutorial on Fourier transforms Note that this tutorial uses a different convention than us. The prefactor in onedimension is 1/(2pi) for the inverse transform (k>x) and just 1 for the forward transform (x>k). We are using a symmetric form where the prefactor is 1/sqrt(2 pi) in each direction.
Some interesting papers related to the course:
Einstein:
Einstein photoelectric effect (1905)
Einstein special relativity (1905)
Einstein radiation theory (1917)
Einstein and quantum theory (review 1979)
H matrix elements:
Gordon matrix elements (1929)
H Fine structure, hyperfine structure, and Lamb shift:
Hydrogen data (2010)
Lamb original measurement (1947)
Series of six papers by Lamb, et al. giving more experimental and theoretical details (19501953)
I II III IV V VI
Welton's Lamb shift calculation (1948)
Newer calculations (1967)
Newer experiments (1979)
Cs microwave clock:
NIST F1 accuracy (2002)
Absorption in atomic vapors:
Rb D lines, Hughes, Adams (2008)
Rb saturated absorption spectroscopy, Freegarde (2010)
Purcell effect:
Purcell effect(1946)
Haroche observation of enhanced decay (1983)
Kleppner theory of inhibited decay (1981)
Kleppner observation of inhibited decay (1985)
Rabi:
Space quantization (1937)
Magnetic resonance note (1938)
Molecular beam magnetic resonance method (1939)
Laser cooling:
Adams laser cooling review (1997)
Letokhov laser cooling and trapping review (2000)
Metcalf laser cooling review (2003)
subDoppler cooling of Na (1988)
Atomic parity nonconservation:
Bouchiat derivation of relevant weak interaction (1974)
Bouchiat review of parity nonconservation (1997)
JILA experiment (1997)
JILA experiment  all the details (1999)
Links to useful information:
Periodic table
NISTÃ‚Â Physical reference data
NIST Atomic Spectroscopy reference
Harvard CFA databases
Wikipedia  atomic physics
Physics World
Math World
Wolfram function site
Digital library of mathematical functions
Abramowitz & Stegun Handbook of Mathematical Functions
Integrals on the web
ClebschGordan calculator
6j symbol calculator
Matrix solver for linear equations on the web
